The Basílica of Santa María



We are facing the construction of a temple that was inicitative of the Guild of the Dizzy, but that would not be possible without other aids and particular contributions. To understand all this we must mention how much this institution established in the fishermen's neighborhood, the Moureira, represented in the sixteenth century and that founded a guild and a religious brotherhood. The key to its importance lay in fishing, especially sardine. Precisely a part of the profits of the trade of this product was dedicated to this construction to which were added the penalties imposed on those who skipped the ordinances of the Guild. To all this were added contributions that could be perceived from Lords of the Villa. For all this the income oscillated a lot and so it is recorded that in 1551 the works passed difficulties due to the lack of sardine. A curious fact is that in the temple there are a small number of heraldic carvings, prohibited at that time so that it would be recorded that the construction was the work of the Guild. Thus the few existing carvings appear in chapels paid for by individuals. There is no documentary trace about the beginning of the works. It seems that it was at the beginning of the sixteenth century and that it can be related to the pontificate of the Fonsecas: the first begun in 1460, the second in 1464 and the third in 1509. The latter is perhaps the safest date of the start of construction. A fact that can corroborate it is the large number of canteiros registered in the Brotherhood of San Juan since 1487 but above all between 1529 and 1531. In 1518 it is recorded that García Rodríguez, former Vicar of the Guild of Mareantes declared to have certain amounts to donate to the Chapel of the Corpo Santo (the head of the nave of the Epistle); in 1519 the Main Chapel seems to be almost finished and in 1552 the Chapel of San Miguel. The closure of the vaults was verified in 1559 and even later the tower was built. BEGINNING OF THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE TEMPLE

MAIN FACADE Dated around 1541, it has been attributed to Cornelis of Holland and John Noble, is oriented to the west and has a large staircase to access it. Of Plateresque style, it is considered one of the best examples of this style in the Galician community, practically emulating a stone altarpiece of three bodies (the protruding sides and the central one incoming). Central section. The entrance, with a semicircular arch, is flanked by the representations of St. Peter and St. Paul. Above it, the image of the Dormition of the Virgin and various representations of saints, biblical and historical characters. At the top are two medallions with scallop shell backgrounds in which the image of two evangelists is inserted, while the other two are placed in similar medallions above. They appear with their traditional attributes and in the company of the animals of the vision of Ezekiel and the Apocalypse: an Angel FACADES AND TOWER

with St. Matthew, an ox with St. Luke, a lion with St. Mark, and an eagle with St. John. Above we must highlight the rose window, on which a relief of the Assumption of the Virgin with the Holy Trinity is represented, Jesus being located to the left of God instead of to his right. The façade is completed with a Calvary (the Crucified One flanked by the figures of Santa Maria and San Juan) and a crest made with a beautiful stone lace, typical of the Portuguese Manueline Gothic. Laterai bodies. At the bottom, we find the four doctors of the Latin Church: St. Gregory the Pope (with his tiara), St. Xerome, with glasses (a peculiar representation) and St. Ambrose and St. Augustine with their miters of Bishops, accompanied by several sacred figures, who try to exalt the image of the Virgin. Teucro also stands out, the mythological founder of the city, located next to the archangel San Miguel and Hercules. We also find images that have been interpreted as representations of Carlos I and Felipe II (in medallions) or Colón and Hernán Cortés (under the rose window). NORTH FACADE Also called Soledad, it is very simple in its lines and sober in its decoration as well as lack of any type of imagery. Its structure is simple perhaps because at the time of its construction it overlooked an alley with very small houses. However, it presents a curious characteristic, which is the dissymmetry of the window with the door, which is given by the presence of the buttresses and in its interior part of an immediate altar. It should also be noted that it presents the only family shield that appears on the outside of the temple, probably of the Saavedra and Patiño family, which had some graves in the central nave. Its authorship is attributed to Sebastián Barros, with Juan Noble as Master. SOUTH FACADE It is made within the same architectural concepts as the main façade, but adapting to the small space available. It has a door with a semicircular arch closed by a decorated strip and on its sides two pilasters also decorated. On the arch an altarpiece of three openings with lowered arches and crowned with cresting with vegetal decoration and heads of angels. In the openings, the figures of the Virgin with the child, San Miguel (right) and San Pedro Telmo (left). Under them, two heads: Emperor Charles and Empress Elizabeth. It presents a date inscribed on the cover itself, 1539, but there is no documentary evidence that it was

that of its realization, and everything seems to coincide with the fact that it is a work by Juan Noble. THE TOWER It is a work whose layout was made by Mateo López but the realization corresponded to Juan Pérez and Antonio Montero. Its construction would be carried out around 1561, since in June of that year an annexed house was demolished, essential for the realization of this tower. It is a building that from the beginning was controversial, protesting many parishioners of the time because it does not correspond to the ornamentation of the rest of the Church (which was due to the lack of means at that time). It is a prismatic block with a protruding curved segment corresponding to the interior spiral staircase. At its base, the chapel of Cristo del Buen Viaje, with the carving of Cristo Cruficado, nineteenth century carving.

THE INTERIOR OF THE BASÍLICA The plant of this Basilica is of great originality to have a cruciferous plant of three naves and a head divided into three chapels: the Major or High Altar, that of Christ and that of the Trinity. The aisles are much lower and the narrow ones than the central nave. The impression of spaciousness of the central nave is reinforced by its height opening on the high window arches. Its triumphal arch presents the peculiarity of being located in front of the three chapels of the head and not only before the Main Altar. Features ribbed vaults in its three main naves with granite slab plements and large keys decorated with various motifs (heraldic, historical or decorative) highlighting the complexity of the plant. THE PLANT 3 9 10 13 14 16 1 12 2 4 5 6 7 8 11 15 Porta e fachada norte  Porta e fachada principal  Porta e fachada sur 

HIGH ALTAR AND CHANCEL CHAPELS 1.High altar. Located in the main chapel of the temple, it is made of chestnut and walnut wood by the Galician sculptor Maximino Magariños in the early twentieth century (probably in 1909). It was promoted by the Board of Works for the church that had been constituted in 1906, given the lamentable state in which the valuable previous altarpiece was located. The replaced altarpiece had been due to the traces of the entallador or as it appears in some documentation Master of Architecture Francisco de Antas Franco in its architectural part and a sculptor, probably Jácome de Prado. It was dated in the seventeenth century, and some of its panels are currently preserved in the Museum of Pontevedra. Of the projects presented, the one of the architect López de Rego triumphed, which was executed by the sculptor Magariños, concluding in 1909, according to the inscription engraved at the ends of the lower part of the bank. Neo-Gothic style, it is structured in a single body with three streets, bench and sotabanco. In its three streets is represented, in the central, the Virgin in her Assumption to Heaven, surrounded by celestial personals. To the right and left, in addition, there are two bas-reliefs that show the Annunciation by the Angel and the visit of the Virgin to her cousin Elizabeth. The bench is decorated with seven bas-reliefs: the coming of the Holy Spirit or Pentecost, the Epiphany, the Presentation of Jesus in the Temple, the Transfiguration, Jesus before the doctors of the Temple in Jerusalem, the Flight to Egypt and the Apparition of the angel to the Holy Women before the empty tomb. Alternating with some undecorated boards and those that collect the aforementioned scenes, he arranges others with the figures of the Evangelists and several saints. In the sotabanco the altarpiece focuses the emblem of the pontiff S. Pius X, pope then, decorating the medallions with the effigies of Cardinal Martín de Herrera, Archbishop of Compostela of the time, the parish priest and another who could be identified with the artist. Separating the streets, columns and small niches with or without images. 2. Altar of the Holy Trinity. It is the first of the chapels on the Gospel side. It presents a structure similar to that of the Christ located on the opposite side and is formed by carvings

of the Eternal Father and Jesus sitting on his right, and in the upper part to the Holy Spirit in the form of a Dove. Very interesting is a small carving of Our Lady with the Child, sitting on Noah's Ark that can be enabled for Tabernacle. It is completed, on the sides, with two polychrome wood carvings of the Apostles St. Peter and St. Paul. 3. Altar of Christ and the Blessed Sacrament. First of the chapels on the side of the Epistle. Formerly known as the Good Jesus and also of the Anguish. The baroque altar has in the center the Holy Christ, work of José Ferreiro of the eighteenth century. The niche of the Christ, has on the left side the image of San Telmo and on the right to San Pascual Bailón. This chapel was founded by the Barbeito Padrón, there is an inscription that accredited it together with a date of the year 1525. The founders D. Juan de Barbeito and his wife Teresa Álvarez de Figueroa were buried here among other relatives. At the feet of the Christ, we find the Tabernacle with the Blessed Sacrament used in all celebrations. SIDE CHAPELS (North or Gospel side) 4. Chapel of San José. Although today it is dedicated to St. Joseph, it was previously dedicated to the Virgen del Socorro. It is an additional work of the seventeenth century that presents a simple stone arch that shelters the image and two cenotaphs without weapons or inscriptions. 5. Chapel of San Miguel and the Virgin of Fatima. It opens with a pointed arch with floral decoration and has a starry ribbed vault with five keys. It has a neoclassical altar that houses the Virgin of Fatima and another, adjacent to the image of San Miguel. It was in this chapel where the burials of the dizzy took place, so it is very possible that under it is a crypt. 6. Chapel of the Perpetual Help. Anciently called the Nativity. It was founded by Doña Catalina Alonso de Pazos, wife of the nobleman Payo Mariño de Lobeira. 7. Altar of the Dolorosa. With baroque style altarpiece where we find the Virgen de los Dolores. Under his feet and collected in a glass urn, there is an image of Christ Recumbent. 8. Altar of Santa Bárbara. Today dedicated to Santa Barbara, it was founded in the early seventeenth century as an altar of Solitude and presented an oil painting as an altarpiece, lost today.

SIDE CHAPELS (South or Epistle side) 9. Chapel of the Pilar. Built in the seventeenth century, specifically in 1622, by Rodrigo de Sa, being called at that time of the Corpo Santo because the dizzy placed in it the Crucified Christ under the invocation of the "Good Trip", which remained here until the end of the XVIII moment in which the outer chapel passes under the tower, where it is today. Later there was in it the Virgen Blanca and currently the Virgen del Pilar. 10. Chapel of the Purísima. Originally called the Brotherhood of Mercy. It is a funerary monument with an arch framed by columns. The arch previously sheltered the group of the Trinity, under the wooden baldachin of the XVI. The niche and the frames of two boards on the sides are from the XVI, the rest from the XVII. The oldest and most important panels of the altarpiece are the work of the Portuguese painter Francisco de Ataide, while the rest are the work of the local entallador Juan de Dios. 11. Chapel of lasAngustias. It is accessed by a cairelado arch and on the roof ribbed vault. Its construction is early as it seems to date from 1525. It had a baroque wooden altarpiece (the richest in the temple) removed from here at the beginning of the nineteenth century and was taken and rebuilt in the Chapel of San Roque. In the background of the opening of the altarpiece were exposed the portraits of two knights of the XVII, probably the Nodales brothers. In the center of the vain we can contemplate the figure of the Virgen de las Angustias. OTHER SPACES 12. Sacristy. 13. Tower and Museum. The hundred steps of the spiral staircase of the tower lead to the three spaces of the Parish Museum: – In the first one, ancient liturgical ornaments are shown, along with books of heritage value and the processional image of the Holy Trinity. – In the second one, goldsmithing is exhibited that is not being used in the cults. – In the third, you access the upper part of the tower, meeting a beautiful panomarica of the city.

14. Baptistery. 15. Pulpit. Located next to the first column of the nave of the Gospel, it is the work of Maximino Magariños and is dated in 1909. It features an access staircase decorated with three embossed boards depicting three biblical scenes, polygonal plan and base decorated with eight sedentse angels. The body of the pulpit is made up of a succession of warhead arches, with musician angels in the spandlings, in whose interiors the papal tiara and the Evangelists are represented with their symbols, on the sides of a bust of the Ecce Homo, which ends with a frieze with the heads of little angels. 16. Chapel of the Christ of the Good Journey.

DI SEÑO Y MAQUETACIÓN DI SEÑO Y MAQUETACIÓN © Basílica of Santa María Maggiore Santa María avenue, 24 Tlf.: +34 986 866 185 36002 Pontevedra Artistic historical monument. Ministry of Culture, 1931 Basílica. John XXIII p.p., 1962 Royal Shrine. John Charles I, 2000 BASÍLICA SANTA MARÍA OF THE